Finding the Centrality of Urban Street Network by Applying Syntactic and Network Pattern Models

Authors

ผศ.ดร.ณพงศ์ นพเกตุ

Published

NIDA International Conference for Case Studies on Development Administration 2018 (NIDA-ICCS)

Abstract

The aim of this case research is to study the centrality models of urban street pattern in order to assist city planning and design. It compares and contrasts“Space Syntax” model (SS) with “Network Pattern” model (NP). Previous studies of each model analyzed the street pattern’ s structure in correlation with economical and sociocultural activities of concerned city. For city planning and urban design and studies, these analytical centrality models can help the planners, designer and researchers not only to understand the inherit logic for each specific place but also to plan for the future of the places in cities. To visualize spatial configuration of city, SS model emphasizes on the calculation of Axial Map. Central to the Axial Map is ‘integration value’ indicating the degree of ‘ the segment’ s accessibility’. This value demonstrates the accessible degree of each street segment as seen from all other segments. In contrast, Network Pattern model (NP) proposes alternative real distance based metrical models, Central-Node Map and Shortest-Path Map. These models base on the sum metrical shortest paths from any street junction to all other street junctions. The first depicts the degree of metrical centrality among all street junctions in the same network, and the later the degree of being shortest path among all street segments in the same urban grid. In short, both SS and NP models yield the optimal path of city’s street pattern. However, the Axial Map focuses on ‘topological’ centrality, whilst the Network Maps focuses on ‘metrical’ centrality. The NP models studied in this case study show that the actual traveling distance is important and must be considered in the explanation of pedestrian movements and local activities. This result is particularly strong in the town where automobiles do not dominate traveling pattern. The research concludes that, despite revealing different spatial structures, Space Syntax and Network Pattern models are supportive to each the other to analyze street structure in conjunction with use patterns, pedestrian and vehicle movements and local socio-economical activities. If combined, they can simulate the global access of syntactic integration pattern and the local compact structures of city, namely the central-node and the shortest-path core area of the city.

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