กลวิธีการแปลคำว่า “ต้อง” เป็นภาษาญี่ปุ่นและการแปล なければならない เป็นภาษาไทย

Authors

น.ส.กรรณิกา จิตรโสภา, ผศ.ดร.เตวิช เสวตไอยาราม

Published

Journal of Liberal Arts, Thammasat University

Abstract

This study aims to examine translation techniques to convey the meaning of “Tong” and “Nakereba naranai” through a total of 5 Japanese-Thai and 5 Thai-Japanese translated literatures. From a study about modality (such as Nitta, 1991; Masuoka, 2007, พรทิพย์, 2515; ไพทยา, 2540), the findings suggest that “Tong” consists of 4 possible meanings: (1) Duties and requirements, (2) Strong confidence and anticipation, (3) Obligations, requests, forbiddance, suggestions, warnings, and (4) Determination. On the other hand, “Nakereba naranai” consists of 5 possible meanings: (1) Duties and requirements, (2) Strong confidence and anticipation, (3) Obligations, requests, forbiddance, suggestions, and warnings, and (4) Determination, and (5) Natural outcomes. The researcher then studied translation techniques from syntactic translation researches in several languages and eventually concluded that there are 2 translation techniques: (1) Form-based translation (word-for-word translation) and (2) Equivalence, where equivalence means any other modality that is not “Tong” or “Nakereba naranai”, including formless modality. To analyze the data found in the translated literatures, first the researcher reviewed the meaning of “Tong” and translation techniques, then reviewed the translation techniques of “Tong” and “Nakereba naranai” for each meaning. Reviewing the meaning of “Tong”, the researcher found that there is another possible meaning for “Tong” in addition to the 4 meanings mentioned above, which is “natural outcomes.” Consequently, “Tong” appears to have the same 5 meanings as “Nakereba naranai”. During the reviewing of translation techniques, the researcher discovered another technique “Adaptation,” a translation technique where syntactic structures are loosely translated or completely adapted. Therefore, this research employs a total of 3 translation techniques: (1) Form-based translation (word-for-word translation), (2) Equivalence, and (3) Adaptation. For translation techniques, considered by meaning, the researcher found that “Tong” that falls in the meaning of “duties and requirements” is mostly translated with “form-based translation technique.” The rest 4 possible meanings were found to be translated with “equivalence technique.” It is found that the most common equivalence used for each meaning includes the use of “formless modalities” in the meaning of “strong confidence and anticipation,” the use of “volitional form” in the meaning of “determination,” the use of “imperative form” in the meaning of “obligations, requests, forbiddance, suggestions, and warnings,” and the use of “formless modalities” in the meaning of “natural outcomes.” The researcher assumed that the mentioned trends are resulted from “denotative and connotative meanings.” From the number of “Tong” and “Nakereba naranai” samples found in translated literatures, the researcher found the meaning of “duties and requirements” at the highest frequency. In other words, “duties and requirements” is the “denotative meaning” of both words. As the two words, “Tong” and “Nakereba naranai”, have the same denotative meaning, “form-based translation technique” is most used to translate them in regards of this meaning. The rest 4 possible meanings are considered “connotative meaning” that can be easily replaced with other more direct modalities that are not “Tong” or “Nakereba naranai”. Moreover, Japanese is much more “context-reliant” than Thai. Thus, even if the use of “Tong” is present in Thai language, when the present context is enough to convey the meaning, such as 信じる (which expresses strong confidence), formless modality is often used instead of “Nakereba naranai”. This falls into “equivalence technique.” For translating “Nakereba naranai”, it was found that every meaning of it was mostly translated with “form-based translation technique”. The researcher assumed that it was because “Tong” and “Nakereba naranai” have the same “denotative meaning.” Besides, when considering the “diversity of modalities” of the 5 possible meanings of “Tong” it was found that Thai language tends to use the word “Tong” or phrases that contain the word “Tong” convey such meaning. Consequently, “form-based translation” was the most common.

Research on the impact of business model on customer value under the background of new retail -take YONGHUI SUPERSTORES as an example. Online, The 15th International Conference on the Regional Innovation and Cooperation in Asia (RICA) under theme of “The Future of Asia: The Asian Economy after Covid-19 Pandemi (204-213).